Hi everyone, I am working on a simple adaptive notch filter that will be used to cancel one sinusoid. Additionally, the filter coefficient is complex (I am looking after the error envelope). So what I have is one zero and one pole. The zero is fixed to the unit circle and the pole is very close to the unit circle at the same angle as the zero. The transfer function is: H(z) = (1 - (1<w)*z^-1) / (1 - (p<w)*z^-1) (1<w) can be read as 1 at an angle of w. p is less than 1 and greater than 0 and is used to keep the pole inside of the unit circle. I want to use an adaptive algorithm to adjust only the angle of the zero and pole (w). Currently I am trying LMS and am not having any success. Am I barking up the wrong tree trying to use LMS? If not, could someone describe how I should be adjusting w? Thank you for your help, Zach

# Adaptive Notch Filter - LMS Algorithm

Started by ●February 14, 2007

Reply by ●February 14, 20072007-02-14

zrimkunas wrote:> I am working on a simple adaptive notch filter that will be used to cancel > one sinusoid. Additionally, the filter coefficient is complex (I am > looking after the error envelope). So what I have is one zero and one > pole. The zero is fixed to the unit circle and the pole is very close to > the unit circle at the same angle as the zero. The transfer function is: > > H(z) = (1 - (1<w)*z^-1) / (1 - (p<w)*z^-1) > > (1<w) can be read as 1 at an angle of w. p is less than 1 and greater > than 0 and is used to keep the pole inside of the unit circle. > > I want to use an adaptive algorithm to adjust only the angle of the zero > and pole (w). Currently I am trying LMS and am not having any success. > Am I barking up the wrong tree trying to use LMS? If not, could someone > describe how I should be adjusting w? >You are adapting the filter by the stochastic gradient, right? It converges to the single solution if the error surface is quadratic. What is your criteria for convergence? I.e. what parameter are you trying to minimize? Vladimir Vassilevsky DSP and Mixed Signal Design Consultant http://www.abvolt.com

Reply by ●February 14, 20072007-02-14

> > >zrimkunas wrote: > >> I am working on a simple adaptive notch filter that will be used tocancel>> one sinusoid. Additionally, the filter coefficient is complex (I am >> looking after the error envelope). So what I have is one zero and one >> pole. The zero is fixed to the unit circle and the pole is very closeto>> the unit circle at the same angle as the zero. The transfer functionis:>> >> H(z) = (1 - (1<w)*z^-1) / (1 - (p<w)*z^-1) >> >> (1<w) can be read as 1 at an angle of w. p is less than 1 and greater >> than 0 and is used to keep the pole inside of the unit circle. >> >> I want to use an adaptive algorithm to adjust only the angle of thezero>> and pole (w). Currently I am trying LMS and am not having any success.>> Am I barking up the wrong tree trying to use LMS? If not, couldsomeone>> describe how I should be adjusting w? >> > >You are adapting the filter by the stochastic gradient, right? >It converges to the single solution if the error surface is quadratic. >What is your criteria for convergence? I.e. what parameter are you >trying to minimize? > >Vladimir Vassilevsky > >DSP and Mixed Signal Design Consultant > >http://www.abvolt.com > > > > >Thanks for the reply. I am adapting by the stochastic gradient. Given a pure sine, I want the output of my system to be zero (or as close as possible). So if H(z) = y(z)/x(z) I am trying to minimize y(z). The major problem that I am having is that I am trying to minimize y(z) by adjusting only the angle of the pole and zero. My initial attempt to adjust the angle (w) was as follows: w(n) = w(n-1) + step_size*x(n)*y(n) This didn't work. The pole and zero just move around the unit circle without ever converging. I suspect that my problem lies in step_size*x(n)*y(n). However, I'm not sure what is wrong with it. Do you think that it is possible to adjust only the angle using LMS, leaving the modulus fixed?

Reply by ●February 15, 20072007-02-15

On Feb 14, 10:57 pm, "zrimkunas" <zachary.rimku...@gmail.com> wrote:> >zrimkunas wrote: > > >> I am working on a simple adaptive notch filter that will be used to > cancel > >> one sinusoid. Additionally, the filter coefficient is complex (I am > >> looking after the error envelope). So what I have is one zero and one > >> pole. The zero is fixed to the unit circle and the pole is very close > to > >> the unit circle at the same angle as the zero. The transfer function > is: > > >> H(z) = (1 - (1<w)*z^-1) / (1 - (p<w)*z^-1) > > >> (1<w) can be read as 1 at an angle of w. p is less than 1 and greater > >> than 0 and is used to keep the pole inside of the unit circle. > > >> I want to use an adaptive algorithm to adjust only the angle of the > zero > >> and pole (w). Currently I am trying LMS and am not having any success. > >> Am I barking up the wrong tree trying to use LMS? If not, could > someone > >> describe how I should be adjusting w? > > >You are adapting the filter by the stochastic gradient, right? > >It converges to the single solution if the error surface is quadratic. > >What is your criteria for convergence? I.e. what parameter are you > >trying to minimize? > > >Vladimir Vassilevsky > > >DSP and Mixed Signal Design Consultant > > >http://www.abvolt.com > > Thanks for the reply. I am adapting by the stochastic gradient. Given a > pure sine, I want the output of my system to be zero (or as close as > possible). So if H(z) = y(z)/x(z) I am trying to minimize y(z). > > The major problem that I am having is that I am trying to minimize y(z) by > adjusting only the angle of the pole and zero. My initial attempt to > adjust the angle (w) was as follows: > > w(n) = w(n-1) + step_size*x(n)*y(n) > > This didn't work. The pole and zero just move around the unit circle > without ever converging. > > I suspect that my problem lies in step_size*x(n)*y(n). However, I'm not > sure what is wrong with it. Do you think that it is possible to adjust > only the angle using LMS, leaving the modulus fixed?If you have access to "Adaptive Signal Processing" by Widrow and Stearns, there is an example in Chapter 12 (p. 316) that describes what you want. It gives the analysis of an adaptive notch filter that can track the interfering sinusoid even if its frequency and phase vary. You must provide the sinusoid to cancel as the filter's reference input, but you can get zeros exactly where they need to be to get zero gain at the sinusoid frequency with two adaptive taps. Jason

Reply by ●February 15, 20072007-02-15

On Feb 15, 9:45 am, cincy...@gmail.com wrote:> On Feb 14, 10:57 pm, "zrimkunas" <zachary.rimku...@gmail.com> wrote: > > > > > > > >zrimkunas wrote: > > > >> I am working on a simple adaptive notch filter that will be used to > > cancel > > >> one sinusoid. Additionally, the filter coefficient is complex (I am > > >> looking after the error envelope). So what I have is one zero and one > > >> pole. The zero is fixed to the unit circle and the pole is very close > > to > > >> the unit circle at the same angle as the zero. The transfer function > > is: > > > >> H(z) = (1 - (1<w)*z^-1) / (1 - (p<w)*z^-1) > > > >> (1<w) can be read as 1 at an angle of w. p is less than 1 and greater > > >> than 0 and is used to keep the pole inside of the unit circle. > > > >> I want to use an adaptive algorithm to adjust only the angle of the > > zero > > >> and pole (w). Currently I am trying LMS and am not having any success. > > >> Am I barking up the wrong tree trying to use LMS? If not, could > > someone > > >> describe how I should be adjusting w? > > > >You are adapting the filter by the stochastic gradient, right? > > >It converges to the single solution if the error surface is quadratic. > > >What is your criteria for convergence? I.e. what parameter are you > > >trying to minimize? > > > >Vladimir Vassilevsky > > > >DSP and Mixed Signal Design Consultant > > > >http://www.abvolt.com > > > Thanks for the reply. I am adapting by the stochastic gradient. Given a > > pure sine, I want the output of my system to be zero (or as close as > > possible). So if H(z) = y(z)/x(z) I am trying to minimize y(z). > > > The major problem that I am having is that I am trying to minimize y(z) by > > adjusting only the angle of the pole and zero. My initial attempt to > > adjust the angle (w) was as follows: > > > w(n) = w(n-1) + step_size*x(n)*y(n) > > > This didn't work. The pole and zero just move around the unit circle > > without ever converging. > > > I suspect that my problem lies in step_size*x(n)*y(n). However, I'm not > > sure what is wrong with it. Do you think that it is possible to adjust > > only the angle using LMS, leaving the modulus fixed? > > If you have access to "Adaptive Signal Processing" by Widrow and > Stearns, there is an example in Chapter 12 (p. 316) that describes > what you want. It gives the analysis of an adaptive notch filter that > can track the interfering sinusoid even if its frequency and phase > vary. You must provide the sinusoid to cancel as the filter's > reference input, but you can get zeros exactly where they need to be > to get zero gain at the sinusoid frequency with two adaptive taps. > > Jason- Hide quoted text - > > - Show quoted text -If it were me, I would use the adaptive line enhancer (ALE, page 354) with no reference needed instead of the notch filter quoted here. Then I would look a paper by Peter Clarkson describing the behavior of the LMS algorithm with deterinistic signals. That's if it were me. Maurice Givens